|Events during July
· The Earth is at aphelion, its farthest distance from the Sun (152 million kilometres / 94.5 million miles), on the 6th July.
· 26th - Total Eclipse of the Sun, visible from the Pacific Ocean and south America.
· The Moon: New - 11th, Full - 26th. Apogee (405,040 kilometres) - 1st, Perigee (361,120 kilometres) - 13th, Apogee (405,960 kilometres) - 29th.
Mercury passed through superior conjunction
at the end of June and remains unobservable until the middle of July when it becomes visible in the evening sky after sunset. For observors in equatorial and
southern latitudes this is te most favourable apparition of the year.
The best times to observe Mercury in the northen hemisphere are when it is an evening star in the spring and a morning star in the autumn. In midsummer
the lighter skies make visibility difficult near the horizon.
Venus continues to be visible as a magnificent evening object, at magnitude -4.1, in the western sky
On July 10th, Venus passes 1º north of Regulus in Leo which will be about 140 times fainter than the planet.
On July 15th, Venus, Mars, Saturn and the four-day old crescent Moon form a lovely grouping in the early evening twilight, although Mars and Saturn are quite faint. Mars
will be above the Moon and Saturn further to the east. Observors in equatorial and southern latitudes will also see Mercury lower in the twilight sky.
On the 8th June 2004, Venus was at inferior conjunction
and transited the sun. Transits of Venus are rare, taking place at greater
than 100 year intervals and usually in pairs. The last two transits of Venus were in 1874 and 1882. June's transit
began at 7.20h and lasted 6 hours until 13.20h, the total event visible from Europe as a small black disc crossing
the lower part of the Sun from left to right. The next transit will be in late June 2012. After that, transits of Venus
won't occur again until 2117 and 2125.
Before and after inferior conjuction, when Venus is
the closest it comes to the Earth, are the times at which the planet is most brilliant and can be seen setting or rising
4 hours after or before the Sun. The dates of the next two inferior conjunctions are October 28th 2010 and October 26th 2018.
At +1.4 magnitude, Mars continues to be visible in the western evening sky but now sets
before midnight. During July, Mars moves from Leo
late in the month and passes 1.8º south of Saturn on 31st July.
At opposition on the 28th August 2003, Mars was only 56 million kilometres from the Earth. It showed a
disc of 25.1 seconds of arc across which is almost as large as it can ever appear. Mars started 2003 at 310 million kilometres from
the earth at 4.5 seconds of arc and 1.6 magnitude. By opposition it brightened 50 times to reach -2.9 magnitude but faded to 0
magnitude by December. Even to the naked eye Mars was a striking object in the summer and autumn sky, easily identifiable by its
reddish hue in an area of sky poor in bright stars. Mars will not be as close again until 2018.
These favourable oppositions occur every 15 or 17 years but other oppositions occur at average intervals of 2 years 2 months during
which time the planet makes a complete circle of the Earth. In general Mars is observable every other year, being too close to the sun for favourable conditions
during other times. Brightness at opposition varies from -1.0 to -2.9 magnitude, and when furthest from the earth it fades to 1.7 magnitude. The planet can be
identified by its orange-red colour.
As in 2003, Mars comes nearest to the Earth at oppositions at the end of August. At these times it can be brighter than Jupiter,
although low in the sky in Aquarius for northern observors. In the northern hemisphere, the planet may be better seen at oppostions during autumn and winter months
when it is higher in the sky.
Jupiter continues to be a conspicuous object in the early morning sky, moving through
Pisces, increasing in brightness from -2.5 to -2.7 magnitude during July. Jupiter reaches its first
stationary point on 24th July after which it begins a retrograde motion.
Varying from 603 (at its closest) to 770 million kilometres from the sun, the difference in brightness between opposition and conjunction varies less than
with Mars, from about -2.9 to -1.8 magnitude. Always a bright planet, Jupiter comes to opposition a month later each year, moving approximately from one zodiacal
constellation to the next.
The 4 largest moons of Jupiter are easily visible through a small telescope, ranging from 4.6 to 5.6 in magnitude. The innermost, Io, takes 1.8 days
to orbit the planet making its motion easily detectable within a few minutes.
At +1.1 magnitude, Saturn continues to be visible as an evening object in the western sky in
Virgo, setting before midnight.
Saturn moves more slowly than Jupiter and can remain in the same constellation for several years. The brightness of the planet depends on the
aspect of its rings, as well as its distance from Earth and the Sun.
The planet crossed the equator into the northern hemisphere in 1996 where it will remain until 2010 with the southern side of the ring system
facing the earth. Because of its distance, its brightness varies little between opposition and conjunction but is affected by the huge ring system. Seen edge on the
rings contribute little or no light.
Every 15 years the plane of Saturn's rings passes through the sun, illuminating first the north and then the south side. For a few days the
rings are edge on to the sun. About the same time the Earth passes through the ring plane and, depending on the Earth's position, this may happen just once or 3 times.
During 1995/96 there was a triple crossing and the next will be 2038/39. The next single crossings will be in 2009 and 2025.
Saturn's largest moon, Titan, is visible in small telescopes orbiting outside of the ring system.
Brightness varies slightly, reaching a maximum of +5.6 magnitude at opposition. This is bright
enough to see with the naked eye but identifying it against the stars is difficult. At closest approach, Uranus is 2,856 million kilometres (1,775 million miles)
Neptune has an average magnitude of 7.9 which varies little with changing distance. At its closest,
Neptune is 4,341 million kilometres (2,697 million miles) from Earth.
No longer an offical planet and never brighter than +13 magnitude, Pluto is only visible through powerful telescopes.
Last quarter: 4th
New moon: 11th
First quarter: 18th
Full moon: 26th