Axarquia, Costa del Sol, Andalucia, Spain
NIGHT SKIES
Events during January
The Moon: Full – 3rd, Last quarter – 11th, New moon – 19th, First quarter – 25th. The Earth is at perihelion on the 3rd and the Quadrantids Meteor Shower peaks from the 2nd-4th with a low northern evening radiant but unfavourable visibility due to the full Moon.

SE Dawn Sky 20/01/2007
January snapshot
This snapshot shows Jupiter rising in the southeast dawn sky, followed by Pluto and Mars.

The deep sky objects within the region of the sky shown on the snapshot are:
M4 – a globular cluster in Scorpio at 5.6 magnitude.
M6 (The Butterfly Cluster) – an open cluster in Scorpio at 4.2 magnitude.
M7 (The Scorpion's Tail / Ptolemy's Cluster) – an open cluster in Scorpio at 3.3 magnitude.
M8 (The Lagoon Nebula) – a diffuse nebula in Sagittarius at 6.0 magnitude.
M9 – a globular cluster in Ophiuchus at 7.7 magnitude.
M10 – a globular cluster in Ophiuchus.
M11 (The Wild Duck Cluster) – an open cluster in Scutum at 6.3 magnitude.
M12 – a globular cluster in Ophiuchus.
M14 – a globular cluster in Ophiuchus at 7.6 magnitude.
M16 – an open cluster in Serpens at 6.4 magnitude, associated with the Eagle Nebula from which its stars were formed.
M17 (The Omega, Swan, Horseshoe or Lobster Nebula) – a diffuse nebula in Sagittarius at 6.0 magnitude.
M20 (The Trifid Nebula) – a diffuse nebula in Sagittarius at 9.0 magnitude.
M22 – a globular cluster in Sagittarius at 5.1 magnitude.

Messier objects

Mercury
Astronomy, Mythology & Astrology of Mercury
Mercury is at superior conjunction on the 7th after which it becomes an evening object in the southwest sky, setting 1.5 hours after the Sun by the end of January. The Moon is below on the 19th.

The best times to observe Mercury are when it is an evening star in the spring and a morning star in the autumn. In midsummer the lighter skies make visibility difficult near the horizon.

Venus
Astronomy, Mythology & Astrology of Venus
Venus is a bright –3.9 magnitude in the southwest sky, setting 2 hours after the Sun by the end of the month. The Moon is below on the 20th.

Transit On the 8th June 2004, Venus was at inferior conjunction and transited the sun. Transits of Venus are rare, taking place at greater than 100 year intervals and usually in pairs. The last two transits of Venus were in 1874 and 1882. June's transit began at 7.20h and lasted 6 hours until 13.20h, the total event visible from Europe as a small black disc crossing the lower part of the sun from left to right. The next transit will be in late June 2012. After that, transits of Venus won't occur again until 2117 and 2125.

Before and after inferior conjuction, when Venus is the closest it comes to the earth, are the times at which the planet is most brilliant and can be seen setting or rising 4 hours after or before the sun. The dates of the next two inferior conjunctions are October 28th 2010 and October 26th 2018.
Mars
Astronomy, Mythology & Astrology of Mars
Mars, moving from Ophiuchus to Sagittarius, is at 1.4 magnitude and rises about 7.30h during January. The Moon is below on the 17th.

At opposition on the 28th August 2003, Mars was only 56 million kilometres from the earth. It showed a disc of 25.1 seconds of arc across which is almost as large as it can ever appear. Mars started 2003 at 310 million kilometres from the earth at 4.5 seconds of arc and 1.6 magnitude. By opposition it brightened 50 times to reach -2.9 magnitude but faded to 0 magnitude by December. Even to the naked eye Mars was a striking object in the summer and autumn sky, easily identifiable by its reddish hue in an area of sky poor in bright stars. Mars will not be as close again for another 15 years.

These favourable oppositions occur every 15 years but other oppositions occur at average intervals of 2 years 2 months. In general Mars is observable every other year, being too close to the sun for favourable conditions during other times. Brightness at opposition varies from -1.0 to -2.9 magnitude, and when furthest from the earth it fades to 1.7 magnitude. The planet can be identified by its orange-red colour.

Jupiter
Astronomy, Mythology & Astrology of Jupiter
Jupiter in Ophiuchus at –1.8 magnitude, rises just after 5.00h by the end of January. The Moon is below on the 15th.

Being 770 million kilometres from the sun, the difference in brightness between opposition and conjunction varies less than with Mars, from about -2.8 to -1.8 magnitude.

The 4 largest moons of Jupiter are easily visible through a small telescope, ranging from 4.6 to 5.6 in magnitude. The innermost, Io, takes 1.8 days to orbit the planet making its motion easily detectable within a few minutes.

Saturn
Astronomy, Mythology & Astrology of Saturn
Saturn in Leo at 0.0 magnitude, rises soon after sunset by the end of the month. The Moon is closeby on the 6th.

Saturn crossed the equator into the northern hemisphere in 1996 where it will remain until 2010 with the southern side of the ring system facing the earth. Because of its distance, its brightness varies little between opposition and conjunction but is affected by the huge ring system. Seen edge on the rings contribute little or no light.

Every 15 years the plane of Saturn's rings passes through the sun, illuminating first the north and then the south side. For a few days the rings are edge on to the sun. About the same time the earth passes through the ring plane and, depending on the earth's position this may happen just once or 3 times. During 1995/96 there was a triple crossing and the next will be 2038/39. The next single crossings will be in 2009 and 2025.

Saturn's largest moon, Titan, is visible in small telescopes orbiting outside of the ring system.

Uranus
Astronomy, Mythology & Astrology of Uranus
Uranus in Aquarius, sets about 20.30h by the end of the month. The Moon is closeby on the 21st.

Brightness varies slightly reaching 5.6 magnitude at opposition. This is bright enough to see with the naked eye but identifying it against the stars is difficult.

Neptune
Astronomy, Mythology & Astrology of Neptune
Neptune in Capricorn, sets soon after sunset by the end of the month. The Moon is closeby on the 20th.

Neptune has an average magnitude of 7.9 which varies little with changing distance.

Pluto
Astronomy, Mythology & Astrology of Pluto
Never brighter than 13 magnitude, Pluto is only visible through powerful telescopes and we will therefore not be reporting on its position in the sky.
Moon
Astronomy, Mythology & Astrology of the Moon
January
Full moon: 3rd
Last quarter: 11th
New moon: 19th
First quarter: 25th

The Moon in 2007:
The Moon was seen unusually high and low in the sky during 2006 (see Moon). Although the extremities occurred last year, the Moon will still be seen very high and very low each month this year, most noticeable around full Moon. It will be near full and high around the 2nd and 29th January, the 25th February and the 24th March; and near full and low around the 1st and 28th June.

During each month of 2007, the Moon will pass through the Pleiades. This will mostly be in daylight but observable 01.00-04.00h 7th August, 0.00-03.00h 28th October and 22.00-01.00h on the 21st to 22nd December. Binoculars will give a clearer view.

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