|Events during December
· Mercury at greatest eastern elongation (21.5º) - 1st.
· Venus at greatest brilliancy (magnitude -4.7) - 4th.
· Mercury at inferior conjunction - 20th.
· Total eclipse of the Moon - 21st.
· The winter solstice, when the Sun reaches its most southerly point over the Tropic of Capricorn - 21st.
. The Geminids meteor shower, from the 7th to 16th December, is at its height on 14th. A predicted average hourly rate of 60 per hour with favourable visibility.
· The Moon: New - 5th, Full - 21st, Apogee - 404,410 kilometres - 13th, Perigee - 368,460 kilometres - 25th.
Mercury reaches greatest eastern elongation
on December 1st and is visible as an evening object to observors in tropical and southern latitudes, in the west-south-western sky, at the end of evening twilight.
During the first ten days of December, Mercury fades from -0.4 to +0.5 magnitude.
Mercury lies 1.7º south of the two-day old crescent Moon on December 7th.
The planet passes through inferior conjunction on December 20th, after which it becomes visible
again for observors in equatorial and southerly latitudes, low in the eastern sky before dawn by the end of the month.
The best times to observe Mercury in the northen hemisphere are when it is an evening star in the spring and a morning star in the autumn. In midsummer
the lighter skies make visibility difficult near the horizon.
Venus attains greatest brilliancy, at magnitude -4.7 magnitude, on December 4th.
It is a magnificent object in the early morning sky before dawn, rising more than four hours before the Sun by mid-December. On the early
morning of December 2nd, the waning cescent Moon makes a pretty pairing with Venus in the dawn twilight sky with Saturn, much fainter, a little above the pair.
Worth getting up for!
On the 8th June 2004, Venus was at inferior conjunction
and transited the sun. Transits of Venus are rare, taking place at greater
than 100 year intervals and usually in pairs. The last two transits of Venus were in 1874 and 1882. June's transit
began at 7.20h and lasted 6 hours until 13.20h, the total event visible from Europe as a small black disc crossing
the lower part of the Sun from left to right. The next transit will be in late June 2012. After that, transits of Venus
won't occur again until 2117 and 2125.
Before and after inferior conjuction, when Venus is
the closest it comes to the Earth, are the times at which the planet is most brilliant and can be seen setting or rising
4 hours after or before the Sun. The dates of the next two inferior conjunctions are October 28th 2010 and October 26th 2018.
Mars remains too close to the Sun for observation in December. The planet will pass through
on the far side of the Sun in February 2011 and there will be no opposition
of Mars in 2011.
At opposition on the 28th August 2003, Mars was only 56 million kilometres from the Earth. It showed a
disc of 25.1 seconds of arc across which is almost as large as it can ever appear. Mars started 2003 at 310 million kilometres from
the earth at 4.5 seconds of arc and 1.6 magnitude. By opposition it brightened 50 times to reach -2.9 magnitude but faded to 0
magnitude by December. Even to the naked eye Mars was a striking object in the summer and autumn sky, easily identifiable by its
reddish hue in an area of sky poor in bright stars. Mars will not be as close again until 2018.
These favourable oppositions occur every 15 or 17 years but other oppositions occur at average intervals of 2 years 2 months during
which time the planet makes a complete circle of the Earth. In general Mars is observable every other year, being too close to the sun for favourable conditions
during other times. Brightness at opposition varies from -1.0 to -2.9 magnitude, and when furthest from the earth it fades to 1.7 magnitude. The planet can be
identified by its orange-red colour.
As in 2003, Mars comes nearest to the Earth at oppositions at the end of August. At these times it can be brighter than Jupiter,
although low in the sky in Aquarius for northern observors. In the northern hemisphere, the planet may be better seen at oppostions during autumn and winter months
when it is higher in the sky.
Jupiter is a splendid early evening object visible in the southern sky as soon as it gets dark
and setting around midnight. Moving in direct motion, the planet is carried from Aqaurius back into
Pisces during December. The planet fades further, from -2.5 to -2.3 magnitude as its distance from Earth
continues to increase. The four Galilean moons can still easily be seen through a small telescope or good pair of binoculars.
Varying from 603 (at its closest) to 770 million kilometres from the sun, the difference in brightness between opposition and conjunction varies less than
with Mars, from about -2.9 to -1.8 magnitude. Always a bright planet, Jupiter comes to opposition a month later each year, moving approximately from one zodiacal
constellation to the next.
The 4 largest moons of Jupiter are easily visible through a small telescope, ranging from 4.6 to 5.6 in magnitude. The innermost, Io, takes 1.8 days
to orbit the planet making its motion easily detectable within a few minutes.
Saturn, at magnitude +0.8, is movng eastwards in Virgo
and continues to be visible in the eastern sky before dawn.
Saturn moves more slowly than Jupiter and can remain in the same constellation for several years. The brightness of the planet depends on the
aspect of its rings, as well as its distance from Earth and the Sun.
The planet crossed the equator into the northern hemisphere in 1996 where it will remain until 2010 with the southern side of the ring system
facing the earth. Because of its distance, its brightness varies little between opposition and conjunction but is affected by the huge ring system. Seen edge on the
rings contribute little or no light.
Every 15 years the plane of Saturn's rings passes through the sun, illuminating first the north and then the south side. For a few days the
rings are edge on to the sun. About the same time the Earth passes through the ring plane and, depending on the Earth's position, this may happen just once or 3 times.
During 1995/96 there was a triple crossing and the next will be 2038/39. The last single crossing was in 2009 and the next will be in 2025.
Saturn's largest moon, Titan, is visible in small telescopes orbiting outside of the ring system.
Brightness varies slightly, reaching a maximum of +5.6 magnitude at opposition. This is bright
enough to see with the naked eye but identifying it against the stars is difficult. At closest approach, Uranus is 2,856 million kilometres (1,775 million miles)
Neptune has an average magnitude of 7.9 which varies little with changing distance. At its closest,
Neptune is 4,341 million kilometres (2,697 million miles) from Earth.
No longer an offical planet and never brighter than +13 magnitude, Pluto is only visible through powerful telescopes.
New moon: 5th
First quarter: 13th
Full moon: 21st
Last quarter: 28th